Cooking Oils: Which to Choose & Which to Avoid

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The Pure TheraPro Team

The Pure TheraPro Education Team is comprised of researchers from diverse backgrounds including nutrition, functional medicine, fitness, supplement formulation & food science. All articles have been reviewed for content, accuracy, and compliance by a holistic integrative nutritionist certified by an accredited institution.
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Fats and oils play a crucial role in the culinary world, featuring prominently in everything from salad dressings and marinades to the process of searing, frying, grilling, or sautéing proteins and they vary widely in terms of source and suitability for different tasks. Choosing the right cooking oils is crucial not only for flavor but also for our metabolism, inflammation status, and overall health. However, it's imperative to acknowledge that fats and oils are not a one-size-fits-all affair...

Cooking oils are crafted through precise extraction and pressing procedures. Cooking and culinary oils are sourced from different plants and even animal sources:

  • Seed (canola, sesame, safflower, grapeseed, sunflower, flax and more)
  • Nut (almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts and more)
  • Fruit (olive, avocado, coconut, palm and more)
  • Legume (such as peanut)
  • Grain (rice bran & wheat germ)
  • Animal (duck fat, beef tallow, bacon fat, lard, and more)

Each oil variety boasts its own unique chemical makeup, rendering some oils ideal for enhancing the flavors of salad dressings, while others shine when it comes to achieving that perfect sear on a steak. When you're choosing your cooking oil, a critical factor to weigh is its smoke point.

What’s the smoke point and why is it important?

An oil’s smoke point is the temperature at which a cooking oil starts to break down and produce visible smoke. It's a critical factor in cooking because exceeding an oil's smoke point can lead to the release of harmful compounds and unpleasant flavors in your food. Using an oil with a smoke point appropriate for your cooking method is crucial to prevent food from becoming burnt or acquiring a bitter taste. It ensures safe and effective cooking, whether you're sautéing, frying, or roasting, allowing you to achieve the desired results in your dishes without compromising their quality or your health.

The basics you need to know before choosing your cooking oil:
Navigating the seemingly endless array of cooking oils at the market can be daunting. Not all oils are created equal, and making the right choice depends on the dish you intend to prepare. Beyond the smoke point, here are three vital characteristics of cooking oils to keep in mind when you're reaching for that bottle or can:

Unrefined vs. Refined Oil: The journey of cooking oils doesn't end with extraction or pressing; it can continue with refining and processing. Oils in their natural state fall under labels like cold-pressed, raw, virgin, extra-virgin, or unrefined. These oils tend to retain their inherent flavors, as well as valuable minerals, nutrients, and enzymes. However, unrefined oils may have lower smoke points and a tendency to turn rancid when stored for extended periods. Consequently, they are best suited for low-heat cooking or raw applications such as salad dressings or finishing drizzles. In contrast, refined oils undergo processes such as filtering, bleaching, or heating to eliminate volatile compounds present in virgin oils. The result is a product that offers a neutral taste, an extended shelf life, and a higher smoke point.


Omega-6 vs. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: While fats are not inherently unhealthy, some fatty acids are more beneficial than others. Certain oils, like avocado oil, flaxseed oil, and extra virgin olive oil, are rich in healthy fatty acids Omega-9 and Omega-3, which promote well-being. On the flip side, there are Omega-6 fatty acids that can contribute to inflammation in the human body when over-consumed. Oils high in Omega-6, such as canola oil, should be consumed in moderation, or not at all, to avoid potential health issues.

Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats: Recognizing the distinction between saturated and unsaturated fats is essential. Saturated fats, commonly found in meat, cheese, butter, and tropical fruits can be a part of a healthy diet when they’re consumed in moderation and from healthy sources. There are medium-chain sources from fruits and drupes, such as coconut, and palm fruit, and long-chain sources from animal fats such as from cattle and ducks. When opting for saturated fats, ensure they are environmentally sustainable in the case of coconut and palm, and pasture-raised in the case of animal sources. Saturated fats that have been processed or hydrogenated into trans fats are almost universally bad for you and contribute to disease.

Unsaturated or monounsaturated fats are frequently found in fish, nuts and seeds. In general, oils that remain in a liquid state at room temperature contain a higher proportion of unsaturated fat compared to products like butter or lard, which contain more saturated fat and are often solid or semi-solid at cooler temps.

Guidelines for Healthy Cooking Oils
When choosing cooking oils with your health in mind, several factors should be considered. Select oils that have a high smoke point to ensure stability during high-heat cooking, minimizing the risk of harmful compounds forming due to overheating. Avocado oil, with its high smoke point and monounsaturated fat content, is a great choice for both high-temperature cooking and as a salad dressing. Balancing different types of fats is key to a healthy diet.

Monounsaturated found in oils like olive and macadamia nut oil, are considered heart-healthy and do not generally contribute to inflammation. In fact, they can have anti-inflammatory properties when used properly. Do not use these oils for high heat cooking under any circumstances. Additionally, oils that are unrefined and minimally processed retain more of their natural nutrients and healthful properties, so be sure to reach for virgin or extra virgin varieties.

Checking the ingredient list will go a long way in avoiding additives and excessive processing. A good-quality cooking oil should ideally have only one ingredient: the oil itself. Avoid oils that contain trans fats or hydrogenated fats, as they can be detrimental to heart health.

Cholesterol vs Cooking Oils
Managing cholesterol levels is a critical aspect of maintaining heart health, and the right choice of cooking oils can play a significant role in achieving this goal. High cholesterol levels, especially LDL cholesterol, are a significant risk factor for heart disease. Liberally using oils that are rich in monounsaturated (Omega-9) and judiciously using oils primarily made up of polyunsaturated fats (omega-6) can help lower LDL cholesterol levels and improve heart health. For instance, olive oil, particularly extra virgin olive oil, has been extensively studied for its ability to reduce LDL cholesterol levels. Its monounsaturated fats can increase HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, often referred to as the “good” cholesterol, which further supports heart health.

Foods that naturally contain plant sterols and stanols can also aid in managing cholesterol levels. These compounds, which have a structure similar to cholesterol, compete with cholesterol for absorption in the digestive system. This competition helps lower LDL cholesterol levels. Some vegetable oils, such as unrefined sunflower oil, naturally contain plant sterols, making them a valuable choice for individuals looking to manage their cholesterol levels.

Weight Management vs Cooking Oils

When considering weight management, the choice of cooking oils can significantly impact the overall calorie content and nutritional profile of a meal. While oils are calorie-dense, they are an essential part of a well-balanced diet. The key is to use them in moderation and opt for oils that offer nutritional benefits.
For individuals focusing on weight management, oils with a lower calorie count per serving can be advantageous. Oils like avocado oil and olive oil, although relatively calorie-dense, provide numerous health benefits, making them valuable additions to the diet. Additionally, oils rich in medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), such as coconut oil, may potentially support weight management. MCTs are metabolized differently in the body compared to long-chain fatty acids, and they may help increase feelings of fullness and boost calorie burning.

Digestive Health vs Cooking Oils
Maintaining digestive health is crucial for overall well-being, and certain cooking oils may positively impact the digestive system. Oils that are easily digestible and support gut health can contribute to a well-functioning digestive tract.

For instance, olive oil, with its primarily monounsaturated fat content, is gentle on the digestive system and can aid in smoother digestion. Its often used to relieve symptoms of indigestion and promote a healthy gut. Additionally, ginger essential oil, extracted from ginger root, is another oil recognized for its digestive benefits. It can alleviate symptoms of indigestion, bloating, and stomach discomfort.

Although not the most well-known cooking oil, peppermint oil has been shown to relax the muscles of the gastrointestinal system, potentially easing digestive issues such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and abdominal pain. Fiber-rich oils, like unfiltered flaxseed oil and hempseed oil, can support digestive health by promoting regular bowel movements and preventing constipation. The fiber content aids in maintaining a healthy gut by supporting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Joint Health and Cooking Oils
Maintaining joint health is crucial for overall mobility and quality of life, and certain cooking oils may have potential benefits for joint wellness. Omega-3 fatty acids, found in oils such as flaxseed oil, walnut oil, and hempseed oil, are known for their anti-inflammatory properties. These fatty acids may help reduce inflammation and provide relief from joint pain and stiffness, especially for individuals with arthritis.

Fish oil, derived from fatty fish like salmon and mackerel, is another potent source of omega-3 fatty acids. Regular consumption of fish oil may support joint health by reducing inflammation, improving joint flexibility, and potentially slowing down the progression of arthritis. Moreover, oils rich in antioxidants and phytonutrients, such as extra virgin olive oil, can help combat oxidative stress and inflammation, providing indirect benefits to joint health.

Including a variety of these oils in your diet, alongside a well-rounded, nutrient-rich eating plan, can contribute to supporting and maintaining healthy joints. It’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional before making significant dietary changes, especially if you have specific joint concerns or conditions. Additionally, maintaining an active lifestyle with regular exercise that supports joint health is crucial for overall well-being.

Here are our top recommendations when choosing cooking oils:

 In the United States, the use of unhealthy cooking oils is strongly linked to several prevalent diseases:

  • Heart Disease: Regular consumption of cooking oils high in trans fats increases the risk of heart disease by raising LDL (bad) cholesterol levels and promoting atherosclerosis.
  • Obesity: Calorie-dense cooking oils can contribute to weight gain and obesity when overused, leading to various health problems, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and musculoskeletal issues.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Unhealthy fats in cooking oils can lead to obesity and insulin resistance, elevating the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. High-glycemic index oils can also impact blood sugar levels.
  • Cancer: Cooking oils, especially when used at high temperatures or for deep frying, can produce harmful compounds associated with an increased risk of cancer, particularly in the digestive tract and lungs.
  • Inflammatory Conditions: Oils high in Omega-6 fatty acids and trans fats can promote inflammation, which is linked to autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome.

To reduce the risk of these diseases, it's crucial to choose healthier cooking oils like olive oil, or avocado oil and use them in moderation. These dietary changes can significantly improve overall health and lower the risk of these health conditions.

Optimizing metabolism through dietary choices and supplements

1. Digestive Enzymes: Digestive enzyme formulas contain targeted enzyme strains that help you properly digest your food and extract all of the nutrition and beneficial micronutrients within. Pure TheraPro’s Probiotic Digest digestive enzymes is an advanced, comprehensive enzyme formula designed to be suitable for vegans, vegetarians, and omnivores alike.

It is the ultimate solution for those looking to encourage vibrant gut health, optimize nutrient absorption from a wide variety of foods, and support a healthy inflammatory balance and maximum digestive comfort.

Formulated with clinically tested enzyme strains designed to easily break down proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and fiber, it is also supremely effective at digesting complex, potentially inflammatory foods such as gluten, dairy sugars, and proteins such as lactose and whey, as well as nuts, seeds and legumes.

2. Antioxidant Supplements (e.g., Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium): Much of your body is made from fats and lipids, and these fats need to be protected from oxidation (rancidification and aging). Safeguard your cells from oxidative damage by considering antioxidant supplements like Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium. These supplements can help reduce the damage caused to your body by free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consider supplementing with these antioxidants individually or investing in a high-quality multivitamin that contains the optimal forms of these valuable nutrients.

3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oil): Consider incorporating omega-3 fatty acid supplements, such as fish oil, into your routine. These supplements not only support heart health, but also help restore a healthy inflammatory balance in your body.


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